Clinical Cuts: Diabetes mellitus

Access to affordable healthcare for folks with diabetes has been a pressing issue in many communities. But how exactly does diabetes affect the body? Today’s Clinical Cut is all about diabetes mellitus.

In diabetes mellitus, your body has trouble moving glucose, which is a type of sugar, from your blood into your cells.

This leads to high levels of glucose in your blood and not enough of it in your cells, and remember that your cells need glucose as a source of energy, so not letting the glucose enter means that the cells starve for energy despite having glucose right on their doorstep.

In general, the body controls how much glucose is in the blood relative to how much gets into the cells with two hormones: insulin and glucagon.

Insulin is used to reduce blood glucose levels, and glucagon is used to increase blood glucose levels. Both of these hormones are produced by clusters of cells in the pancreas called islets of Langerhans. Insulin is secreted by beta cells in the center of the islets, and glucagon is secreted by alpha cells in the periphery of the islets.

There are two types of diabetes – Type 1 and Type 2, and the main difference between them is the underlying mechanism that causes the blood glucose levels to rise.

Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed when the blood glucose levels get too high, and this is seen among 10% of the world population. About 10% of people with diabetes have Type 1, and the remaining 90% of people with diabetes have Type 2.

Check out the full video and explanation to learn more about diabetes mellitus on Osmosis:

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